Low calcium intake is considered a factor leading to obesity and related diseases such as high blood pressure. It has been hypothesized that insulin resistance syndrome develops as a result of low calcium intake. A healthy calcium intake facilitates the elimination of fat in stool and may help increase core body temperature. In this regard, dietary calcium from dairy products gives better results than calcium supplements. This suggests that dairy products play an important role in fighting obesity.
Calcium is a mineral with alkaline properties. It is an essential element for human life. 99% of the calcium in the human body is in the teeth and bones. The remaining one percent is found in the blood, nerve cells, and body tissues. The average adult human body contains about one kilogram of calcium. It is the most abundant mineral in the human body.
Calcium is essential for growth, maintenance and reproduction. It is often associated with healthy teeth and bones. Muscle contraction, transmission of impulses through the nervous system, hormone secretion, dilation and contraction of blood vessels are some of the other functions in which the mineral plays a role.
Calcium intake in adulthood helps build strong bones. Adults reach their maximum bone mass around the age of 30. Adequate calcium intake to ensure optimal bone mass helps delay bone loss that occurs with age. Osteoporosis, or the condition in which bones become brittle and porous, is a serious problem and the leading cause of fractures in the hip, wrist, pelvis, ribs and vertebrae. Exercise and regular intake of calcium and vitamin D can help prevent osteoporosis.
Clinical studies have shown a link between healthy calcium intake and lower blood pressure. A diet with adequate amounts of minerals such as calcium, potassium, and magnesium, as well as fiber, helps prevent high blood pressure. Adding dairy products to this diet will help reduce existing high blood pressure.
Calcium deficiency is already very common and can be made worse by bariatric surgery if proper guidelines are not followed. After an operation, the absorption of calcium in the intestine is impaired. In fact, after two years, about half of patients who have undergone malabsorptive bariatric surgery develop calcium deficiency. Lifelong adherence to dietary rules is very important to maintain calcium levels in the body. The risk of osteoporosis in elderly patients after bariatric surgery increases. Treatment includes calcium, vitamin D, and bisphosphonate supplementation. The latter is sometimes given to people with low bone density.
Calcium deficiency leads to osteoporosis. Older women and postmenopausal women are at increased risk. Sufficient calcium supplements are prescribed especially for this population group. Underactive parathyroid glands result in improper regulation of calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D. Calcium supplements are prescribed to treat this condition, called hypoparathyroidism.
Other groups at risk of calcium deficiency are heavy drinkers, patients taking corticosteroids, and people with malabsorption problems due to Crohn's disease, celiac disease, and gastric bypass surgery with bowel resection. Rickets, which causes softening of the bones in children, is a condition caused by vitamin D deficiency. Recent research has shown that taking calcium supplements can aid in the healing process. Preliminary population-based studies show that taking calcium supplements helps with both stroke and cholesterol.
Overweight people who take anti-inflammatory corticosteroids for obesity-related arthritis, aluminum-containing antacids, or thyroid hormones are at risk of losing calcium in their urine and feces. Sodium, protein, and caffeine also increase urinary calcium loss. This can be counteracted by including potassium in your diet.
Hyperparathyroidism, or an increase in the hormone PTH, is commonly seen in people who have had bariatric surgery. The thyroid plays an important role in regulating blood calcium levels. This condition can prevent the thyroid from maintaining calcium balance. It is characterized by vitamin D deficiency, osteoporosis and a negative calcium balance. Treatment includes medication and vitamin D supplements. Calcium supplements are usually started immediately after surgery to ensure calcium balance is maintained.
Calcium citrate with vitamin D is given in chewable or liquid form. In these forms, the mineral is better tolerated than in tablet form. In order to improve absorption in the intestine, it is recommended to take the supplements with food. Calcium can also be taken mixed with light yoghurt or whey and soy powder.
It is important to remember that calcium and iron have an inhibitory interaction between nutrients and nutrients. In patients with anemia after surgery, iron absorption can be inhibited by up to 50% or more when iron supplements are taken with calcium supplements or dairy products. The inhibitory effect of calcium phosphate, calcium citrate and calcium carbonate on iron, zinc and magnesium has been observed in studies.
After gastric bypass, a 24-hour urinalysis can help assess metabolic abnormalities that occur when kidney stones are present in the bones. The test provides information about the state of calcium excretion from the kidneys. Hyperoxaluria, or kidney stones, is indicated by an excess of calcium in the urine.
There is evidence that patients with no history of kidney stones are at risk for calcium kidney stones after bariatric surgery. Calcium supplementation after bariatric surgery should be done with consideration of the problems associated with excess calcium accumulation in the body. The role of gastric acid in the absorption of nutrients is also influenced by the stitching processes in the stomach. Calcium carbonate supplements are known to neutralize stomach acid, preventing the absorption of vitamin B12.
On the other hand, hypocalcemia, or abnormally low blood calcium levels, is a serious condition and can develop due to kidney dysfunction, hypoparathyroidism, or vitamin D deficiency. In this context, the perioperative nutritional care is of crucial importance as it lays the foundation for a long-term diet management.
Milk and low-fat dairy products are excellent sources of calcium. Leafy greens are among the best natural sources of calcium. These include spinach, kale, and mustard greens. Dairy products, molasses, celery, broccoli, sesame, and kale are other good sources of calcium. A daily intake of 2500 mg of calcium is considered the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for a healthy person. This includes calcium from foods and supplements.
The good thing about calcium is that unlike many other nutrients, it is not affected by overcooking. Dietary fiber, such as that found in wheat and oat bran, can decrease intestinal absorption of calcium. Nuts and legumes contain phytic acid, which can bind to calcium to form an insoluble complex, reducing the amount of calcium available to the body.
Calcium compounds commonly used for calcium supplements include calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate and calcium citrate.
The amount of elemental calcium in the supplement is an important factor. Calcium supplements are readily available as over-the-counter (OTC) medications. Cost, availability, ease of intake, body tolerance, and potential side effects such as constipation are factors to consider when considering calcium supplements.
Chewable calcium tablets and syrups are absorbed more quickly by the body. The ideal dose is 500mg each time and should be repeated as often as directed by the doctor. Calcium carbonate is best absorbed when taken with food. Calcium citrate supplements can be taken at any time of the day.
Since vitamin D is important for the body's absorption of calcium, care should be taken to ensure that there is an adequate level of vitamin D in the body after bariatric surgery. It should be borne in mind that calcium from dietary supplements can reduce the absorption of tetracycline antibiotics and some drugs used to prevent and treat osteoporosis.