Chapter 37: 25 Who are the Mandoag? - Roanoke: solve the mystery of the lost colony (2023)


The Mango (know Name, And host except her capabilities Is abominable To at The the rest of von The provinces), Car not For The most Part von her retain us. .. .


Edward Bland's Strange Journey

August 27, 1650. The path over which the eight travelers ride is slippery and choked with rain, the horses foaming from plowing arduous kilometers in the sticky mud. Darkness fell hours ago, the dense forest obscuring even the sparse starlight so that the darkness is suffocatingly complete. As night falls, well past his preferred time for sleeping, Edward Bland and his companions, led by an Appomattoc guide named Pyancha, race up Nottoway Creek andlike No, however City,Surprise the residents. It wasHerr Walter von Rawleigh Monitoring,Melancholy murmur, thatparadise it was was created like Part von TheOn the 35th degree north latitude.

This night is the first of an odyssey that will take Bland deep into an uncharted wilderness, both geographically and humanly, and it is only natural that his thoughts turn to Raleigh, for his mission clearly includes the Lost Colonists. At the behest of Virginia Governor William Berkeley, he dived into the vast sea of ​​timber at the southern end of Jamestown and its satellite communities to make contact with some mysterious Englishmen who are said to live in a nation called Tuscarora. Their territory, which the Europeans have not yet entered, is southwest of the Secotan Bland, the Secotan Bland's instructions are to locate the TuscaroraTo I'm talking about with like English people between her, And To I ask For like English Frau Schimmel Away lang Out of,who was itbetween this

But the next night, as the forest is dripping with fog, a Nottoway king named Hundrude enters Blunt's chambersfrowning, And with like view note very Discontent,urges himTo I am going NO longer, assert There it was NO English There, The The Away it was lang,and the passagevery bad with Reason von very Regen The he had Lately please And Many rotten swamps And swamps There it was To Passage above; In Fine, We were found him, And at von Men, very unwilling We must I am going AnyBland decides to go ahead anyway, causing Chounterunde to emergelike fear In von

The next morning, as Blunt's group prepares to leave, Hunderude gets closer to the truth. Him againhe came in particular To us,Blunt said:In like most ernst Away,trust inIs lively got arrested us Danger And The us Security interested him . . . For The Is for sure he knew The The nations We it was To I am going through I shall i do, i do us Away withBlunt ignores him and follows his course.

The Meherrin

The long, long day passes without incident. At night, when darkness invades the forest again, the path beneathfoot becomes so blackened that travelers find it difficult to advance. The deadly silence that had accompanied them undisturbed for many miles is suddenly broken as they hear the sound of voices and see a silent light flicker before them. The group walks through a dark grove of gnarled treesfive Legswide andlike one hundred Foottall and enters a city named Who these people are or what connection they have to neighboring peoples is never revealed. Bland only mentions that his leader islike

The English are not the only visitors to this city. Shortly after their arrival, while the horses are being watered, a Tuscarora man appears andhe said us The The English peoplewe searchedit was like unusual Away away from im The further TuskrodFar south. Blunt immediately commissions him to deliver certain letters to this stranger, hastily written in English, Latin, Spanish, French and Dutch. It is agreed that the Englishman will be taken to a named locationHocomowananck,where they agree

There seems to be a big parade of foreigners among the Meherrin. They were apparently nothing unless they were rich in guests, for Bland is then followed by a man who introduces himself as himdisgust von Hocomawananck Flowhimself, which was undeniably handy in every way. But what this leader has to say is of the utmost importance. "There is a most powerful nation nearby," says Bland, known as "The Tuscarora," many thousands strong, he can attest: The Wainoke are blocking their way north to Jamestown, impeding trade. It's hard to imagine anyone hindering the movement of a nation as numerous as the Tuscarora. We're beginning to suspect that it was Wainoke who struck such terror into Chounterounte that it caused Bland to abandon his mission. This is the nation whose territory he would have to cross if he attempted to communicate directly with the English.

The next day, Bland pushes southwest up the swollen Roanoke River to keep his rendezvous in Hocomawananck. And this is where something strange happens, because despite his friendly chat with the Hocomawananck leader the day before, both Bland's Appomattoc and Nottoway leaders immediately become nervous and wary, and claim soThe Hocomawananck native american it was veryIt's only at this point that they tell Bland what they knew all along: that the Hocomawananck Chief was an impostor. Actually, it was Meherrin.

What the hell is going on? It seems that both the Meherrin and the Wainoke - whoever they are - are intent on blocking Bland's progress. The Appomattoc and Nottoway leaders, with growing excitement, express grave concern about the perilous position of the group, now somewhere north of the Roanoke River. Hocomawananck area. Her immediate response is to go out and inform Bland that if he follows the river upstream as intended, he will encounter two nations - theOcconacheaner And The Nessoneicks– whose cities are built on islands in the river. At her urging, Bland stops walking, merely noticing something that strikes him as odd. Peoplevon The Area,is saidI haveAnd he adds:We seen under her

Duplicate transaction

September 2nd. The strange events continue. At dawn, Bland is awakened by another remarkable visitor. This time a man named Occonosquay who claims to be himSohn To The Tuscarora König,arrives to tell the group that the Englishman they were supposed to meet in Hocomawananck is home nowlike lang AwayHe asks to be followed there.

Blunt refuses, hastily returning to what he inexplicably assumes is the safe city of Meherin. To his surprise, this time people greet him as if he werethis it was furious im us,because ofWainoake spieswho had been there in his absence. Bland now realizes with some delay that the first visitor to the “Tuscarora” was also an imposter. Instead of delivering his letters to the Englishman as instructed, the rogue delivered them into the hands of Wainoke,And We he had Information The im The Year There it was But English under TheBland's group, finally in serious danger, retreated to Jamestown by the quickest route possible. They drift all the wayWainoake spies, Serie Outside There To impede us

what's in a name

Looking at John White's map, it is clear that much of Bland's route was in the area delimited by "Mandoag". So where was this nation? Why has Bland never met her? His guides carefully showed him the various lands near and near, but none bore the name of Mandoag. Could Hariot, Lane and White - independently - have given the location wrong? Or had the Mandoag and their captives moved away from the Lost Colony? Probably not, as Bland has heard a lot about the English presence in the area. So how could they remain invisible? How could a people so famous for their savagery, independence and wealth in Lane's day have now vanished from the scene? Or was it them?

The truth is that the Mandoag were present, but they were not what they appeared to be. In fact, Bland was among them and never knew it. To understand what happened, we need to look at written reports from other regions. We have a word to translate. We know that Lane and Harriot learned of Mandoag through conversations with informants from Secotan and Chowanoc, both of whom spoke Algonquin. The word "Mandoag" is attested in this language family along the entire East Coast, from the Carolinas to Canada and the far interior, with dialectal variations: Mangoak, Mangoage, Manató, Mengwe, Mingo, Doeg, Toag. The formats differ slightly. The meanings are all the same. Mandoag, theheimlichAndtreacherous,common disbelief;

Blunt saw her. Or heard from them. The problem is: which of the nations he encountered were the Mandoag?


To find Mandoag, we need clues - anything, anything - to keep going. Without them we are looking for a needle in a haystack. The region is large, the nations numerous. But we know something. We had a single, tangible piece of information at our fingertips throughout. A clue engraved in the journals to show us the way. It repeats itself incessantly. Scripture insists on that. The formula is simple:The Please useThis connection comes up again and again - the Mandoag decorate their houses with it. For this, the Mandoag are hired as mercenaries. Mandoag controls access to the Chaunis Temoatan mines. "The Lost Colonists" was last reportedreich copper mines vonLike the Spaniards, the Mandoags are impressive because of their wealth. Monocans also have copper. Jamestown is repeatedly attempting to locate the source, which is vaguely described as somewhere in the Southwest.

Until recently it was thought that all of the region's native copper was imported through trade from Indian mines on Lake Superior. It is now known that this is wrong. Copper occurs in strata in rocks at various locations in the Southeast. Scientific analysis of the recovered metal objects indicates that most of the southeastern copper was acquired and processed

So Lake Superior can only serve as a comparison. The mines there were often only opencast mines, in which copper sheets were extracted from folds between rocks. Newport was informed of a similar excavation process west of Powhatan. However, Lake Superior's metallurgists also mined copper from extensive underground pits. Many of the documented specimens were over six meters deep. In Minnesota, a six-ton ​​mass of copper was discovered at the bottom of an abandoned 26-foot long shaft, along with more than ten jawcarts, shovels, chisels, bowls, and ladders, the tools of the copper trade.

The mined ore is annealed by cold forging. That is, the copper was heated by fire to very high temperatures of 900° to 1,500° Fahrenheit, then hammered and reheated until sheet metal was formed. The heat prevented brittleness. Thisgraben like Loch In The Terrain In which this I put The Ore,reported a suitably impressed settler from Jamestown,And i do, i do For this reason like unusual Feuer, which causes Die To run In like Masse, And becomeOnly after that did English copper become malleablepasses elf

The processing of copper into sheet for trade was therefore a time-consuming process, requiring the mining of raw materials, the kindling of fires, and the smelting and hammering of the ore into sheet before delivery to artisans. The activity was labor intensive, and so while covering the Lost Colony assassination, Strachey captured something truly amazing. In theRitanoc,he said,The come on A good thing groomed7von The English live, four Men, two Boys, And A jung maid (WO escaped And went above The Flow von Chaonoke) To rhythm von Copper, von which Is he has secure mines im The he saidRitanoc was never translated. However, a clue to its meaning may be found in the word DelawareLiteu,refers to fire and literally means "thatOctis a locative ending.Ritanoc,then it can be rendered as "place of fire", "place of burning". The Lost Colonists were in a copper production center. The ore is annealed in thin layers over the fire.

But where was Ritanoc? That's what Jamestown's investors learned from Harriotsouthwest von us alt fortress In Virginia, The native american oft informed him The There it was like unusual melt von Rot Metal. . .Except, us Mine native american I have Lately revealed either The Die anders reich Mine von copper Die Gold In like City called Ritanoe close secure Berge lay down west vonRitanoc was either the same place as Chaunis Temoatan or familiar to him.

However, we face another problem here, because the location of Chaunis Temoatan has never been determined. As far as we know, no European has ever been there. So, to find Mandoag, we must find out what neither Lane, nor Newport, nor Virginia Company officials have ever done. We must find the copper. We must find the Chaunis Temoatan mines.

Chaunis Temoatan

Copper ornaments were made which the Secotans wore.if We understandable,said Harriot,with The resident The linger longer In The Land Wo, if this they say Is Berge AndBased on this description, previous searches by Chaunis Temoatan focused on the Blue Ridge Mountains of the Appalachian Range and the gold producing region to the north and found nothing.

Islike Ding most notorious To at The Land,lane excited,The There Is like province To The which The he said Mango I have recourse And Traffic above The Flow von Moratico, which he has like wonderful And most strange Mineral. The Mine Is So notorious under her, if not only To The wild Residence above The he said Flow, And Also To The wild von Choanoke, And at her To The West, But Also To at her von The Herr: The Lands Name Is von Ruf, And Is called Chaunis

Here lies a snag, for the Moratico River—designated as it is on early maps of Roanoke—flows from the northwest. However, Hariot reported that the mines were southwest of the fort on Roanoke Island. No one had ever been there. At least Harriot spoke the language and was sure of what he had heard. In fact, both may have been correct: Chauni's Temoatan was to the southwest, but the normal way to get there—or, more accurately, to the province that sold its produce—was northwest across the Roanoke River.

Skiko, who was a prisoner of Mandoag but had never been to Chauni's Temoatan, explained thistwenty Take' Travel over land out of The Mango To The he said Mineral Land, And The this files through secure But the country between her And The Mangoin front of them

How far was the day trip? Strachey said it was an Indian marchsome fourteen Die sixteen miles like Tag,While Smith reported a six-day journey from Jamestown to the village of Powhatan, some fifty Menatonons sent Lane to the Chesapeake Bay, a journey up the Chowan River, followed by a four-day descent. On the Virginia border, the four days would add up to about forty miles. We can therefore conclude that the day's journey took between ten and fifteen miles - probably less in marshy regions, more in higher and drier areas.

So here we have a fairly accurate measurement. Chaunis Temoatan was twenty days away, or about two or three hundred miles inland, southwest of Roanoke Island. On a modern map that would put us somewhere between the Haw River west of Chapel Hill as the shortest distance and a point east of the Catawba River, say Mooresville, as the longest distance.

But was there copper here? There definitely was! The precise area that we have delineated as the likely location of Chaunis Temoatan lies within a geological formation known as the Carolina Shale. A zone of volcanic and faulted rocks consisting of rhyolitic to basaltic flows and tuffs contains deposits of gold, copper, lead and zinc. Copper occurs in mineralized veins three to five feet wide that trend northeast with deep pockets and dips.

However, if we take a closer look at the shale belt, we discover a curious pattern. The formation extends in a southwestern belt from Granville County on the northeast to Union County on the southwest. Its width varies from 25 to 70 miles. The thickest part of the belt, which contains the greatest concentration of ore deposits, is about midway in what is now Randolph County. A little west lie gold and silver faults that have given rise to a number of modern city names such as Gold Hill, Eldorado, Richfield, Silver Hill and Goldston. Lane noticed that some of Chaunis Temoatan's bronze was soft and pale, like gold. Tests on Secotan copper samples by his mineralogist returned trace amounts of silver. The copper mine we are looking for should therefore ideally be close to all three mineral deposits. Is Randolph County our target area? Distance from Roanoke Island: approximately 250 miles.

The fascinating Zuniga map

If we are correct that Randolph Country is the location of Chaunis Temoatan, then we have established the east-west coordinates within which Mandoag operated. We must now find the borders to the north and south. As a result of John Smith's investigations of the lost colonists, he drew a map locating their known locations. A copy of this map, as we have seen, fell into the hands of the Spanish agent Pedro de Zúñiga, and that is the case

If we look at the Zúñiga map, we notice that south of the James River, four other rivers are depicted, which we will call A, B, C and D. Opposite the southernmost, D, is a notation that appears to read:Pakerakanick. Here remains 4 Men disguised The he came out of roonock ToRiver C is labeledmoralto his mouth, andMachemenchecockalong its highest rays. Next to the river B there is a sign:Panawiock. Here The König von paspaheh mentioned us Men To Is And there went ToFinally, A is a river divided into three arms:Chawwone,and a third, rather incomprehensible word that seems to be

The translation of this map is difficult. The words are most likely written in italics. For example, what strange noises did Smith hear and try to record? Did Zúñiga copy the letters correctly? The handwriting is small and illegible. Did we decipher every letter exactly? It's onelikereally onelikeand not oneMich?What about the letters?N, M,AndOf,does it often look the same? Finally, what does this card have to do with Mandoag or the copper mines?

1890. The first person to attempt to decipher the Zúñiga map is Alexander. It identifies the D, C, and A rivers as the Neuse, Tar, and Roanoke and, based on the wording of the D river, assumes that the Ocanahowan lies on the Neuse. He places the B River in present-day Sampson County and reads the text as follows:Here The König von Paspahege mentioned us Men To Is And will To

1908. The historian Samuel A'Court Ashe, in his study of the north, includes a rough sketch of Brown's tracing of Zúñiga's map. In this way he transcribes the foreign words in the rivers D and A asPakrakwick, now,and pages later he spells them differently - and shows how the hand of a single copyist can result in spelling mistakes. Ashe stainsOchanahonam Fluss Nottoway,Panawickebetween Chowan and Roanoke andSinim Teer.

1969. Philip Barbour reproduces Zúñiga's map from a photograph by He interprets the words on the river D asPakerakanickand for B, the location of Panawiock, it reads:Here The König von paspaheh mentioned us Men To Is And there went ToIt places the Pekerakanick on the Neuse River, the Panawiock between the Roanoke and Pamlico rivers, and the Ocanahowan on the south side of the Roanoke.

1985. David Beers Quinn reprints Barbour's reproduction and identifies the following: River D -no package, runes,Andwith Ihano– either the Neuse or the C River – the B River –Panawick. Here The König von Toll booth mentioned A Mann ToQuinn equates it with the town of Secotan Pomeioc on Wysocking Bay. River A -ChawanoacAndWith Okanaho- in the Albemarle Sound. Places Ocanahowan on the Roanoke River.

A summary of the confusion is as follows:Pakerakanick(D): on the Neuse or Tar or Pamlico.moral(C): Pamlico, Tar or Roanoke.Panawiock(B): between Roanoke and Chowan or on Wysocking Bay at the Pomeioc site.With Okanaho(A): on the Neuse or Roanoke River or Albemarle Sound or Nottoway River. So much for the experts. However, the problem is not with them at all. Located in Smith. Something is wrong with the card.

Let's start with river C, called Morattico. This is definitely Roanoke as early maps equate the two names. We remember that Moratoc was the abandoned Lane town through which the Roanoke River flowed. If C is the Roanoke, then D is most likely the next river to the south, the Tar. The Zúñiga map shows this river branching off to the right. Tar also has this feature: Fishing Creek just north of the modern city

If we are correct that C is the Roanoke, then B, a small waterway, could very well be Cashie Creek. It is here, however, that we run into a problem.The Department von The Map Is wronglyThe section covering Virginia and including the Chesapeake Bay drainage basin was drawn in the standard north-south orientation used by European cartographers. Rivers B, C, and D were oriented similarly. However, River A is twisted ninety degrees in the wrong direction. River A, the Chowan, has an east-west orientation.

It is this peculiarity of Zúñiga's map that has confused previous researchers, who confused Chowan with Chowan and Roanoke, resulting in the locations of the Lost Colony survivors never being able to be positively identified. After correction and comparison with John White's map, the four ends of the Chowan River are clearly visible: Bennett's Creek, Wiccacon River, Meherrin and Nottoway - the split from the Blackwater River further north is not shown. According to the Zúñiga map, the Ocanahowan appears to be on or south of a branch of it

Such a placement error also occurred on John White's map of the North, which he created by merging three separate maps. The northernmost north-south oriented image was of the Outer Banks and was created from field surveys by the Raleigh men. The southern section was copied from LeMoyne's map of Florida. It also had a north-south orientation. The central part, however, was taken from Ayllon's 1520 Spanish map. It was inserted incorrectly. It has an east-west orientation.

The Zúñiga map provides us with the missing coordinates for our search. We now know that we are searching for the Lost Settlers in an area bounded by Randolph County to the west, the Chowan River to the east, the Tar River to the south, and the Meherrin River—a tributary of the Chowan—to the north. But if the Mandoag were here, there would be something else too, wreaking havoc on the Lost Colony.

The Great Trade Path

If we return to the Carolina Slate Belt and take a closer look, we see an interesting pattern. Like a dot game, the copper deposits form a northeast arc within the same general pattern. Many years ago. But why? What prompted modern railroad and roadway engineers to take this path? Because it is obvious that these transmission lines were not built randomly, but follow a very specific course.

What this course was like is evident from the accounts of the first Europeans to set foot inland after Edward Bland: John Lederer (1670), James Needham and Gabriel Arthur (1673), John Lawson (1701) and William Byrd (1728). ). What you have described is amazing. They said there was a great road that stretched inland for five hundred miles and was known as the "Great Trade Route." It began in Granville County, North Carolina, proceeded southwest and crossed the Tar, Flat, Little, Eno, Haw, Alamance, and Deep rivers. At the Yadkin he crossed lush grassy banksAnd enormous large trees,and here the merchants rested. Six miles further he crossed Crane Creek, which was named after himDeadline von unusual armies vonAfter that he came to Catawba, and there, 250 miles from the Roanoke River, the way was half finished. To the east and west were tributary arteries connecting the Appalachian Mountains to the Carolina Coastal Plain. The Great Trading Path itself ended in what is now Augusta, Georgia.

But this highway also bore another name, after the nation that controlled its northern terminus: Occaneechi. Bland was the first Englishman to hear of this people and their walled city on an island in the middle of the Roanoke River. Located at the confluence of the Staunton and Dan rivers, the four-mile-long island covered in timber and peach trees provided the only easy access to Roanoke. Fast rapids flanked it to the east and west. The Occaneechi, Lederer said, aresteady Here In unusual Security, Be Naturally fastened with plugged von Berge And Water An every

South of that, the Occaneechi trade route disappeared into the Carraway Mountains - a country of their ownfast currentsAndvery hochThis was Randolph County, the copper and gold producing area in Chaunis Temoatan. The Occaneechi area at the north end of the Carolina Shale Belt also contained copper showings.There Is So Many apparitions von copper In this To you,Bird wondered why the Englishresident see To Is at

In colonial times, both Virginia and North Carolina used the Great Trading Path. Fur traders lured caravans of hundreds of horses along the road, trading hides for guns, powder, axes, cauldrons, red and blue cord, rum, and brass rings. But trading doesn't start here, so late. The route existed long before that. Occaneechi Island, with its famous trade market, a warehouse for the quick exchange of copper, salt, shells, and mica, was not founded by colonial traders either. The Occaneechi are middlemen, and foreign visitors flock to the city. When Lederer arrives there, he finds four ambassadors from an originally fifty-strong mission,whose Body it was painted In different Colors with characters vonThey came from the northwest, all but four dieIn Routeout ofHunger And hart Wetter, after like two months Travel with Earth And Water In seek von The Island von Occaneechi,an Algonquin term, similar to the Cree wordWoconichi- the placeWo People

ThisI have like Art von generally Language,said a surprised Robert Beverley,which Is understandable with The Chef Men von Many nations if Latin Is In most Accesories von Europa.. . .The generally Language Here needed Is he said To Is The von The Occaneechees, Although this I have it was But like klein Nation, always Out of this Accesories it was known To TheOccaneechi is also used by priests at ceremonies throughout Virginia.if The Catholics von at nations I do her Masse InYears later, the remains of this language recorded at the Fort Christanna military camp were found to contain fragments of Siouan, Algonquian, and Iroquoian words, suggesting a language used in business transactions. Occaneechi, a trade term for five hundred

border guard

Strategically located on their island fortress, the powerful but small in numbers Occaneechi control access to the Great Trade Path. Therefore, they determine who may enter and who may not. John Lederer is forced to seek permission from neighboring Saponi to even enter Occaneechi territory. In theSoap, like Dorf von The Nachisaner . . . convenient on to like Zweig von Shower,Peopleexamined Mein strict About what I he came, in which direction I went And Was Mein BusinessI please hertook Mein Passport, have given Mein Wort To TO RETURN To her within six Sweet. The Soap,unlike Powhatan,it was People von like hoch Stature, warlike AndAs a sub-tribe of the Monocanes, they were friends of the Occaneechi. Significantly, Lederer aunusual save on computer von Perlein her temple,which this he had won, between But Prey,from a beach What people did they mean?

If Lederer thought the Saponi were keeping track well, he was completely unprepared for the Occaneechi's ferocity. A Rickohockan ambassador and five companions whose faces were painted with gold pigments,In which Mineral this Accesories I do very abound,They arrive - and are murdered in the night.Every Nation gives von special flag Die Waffen,said Lederer. Occaneechis islike Line. SAME Line,added expresses

As James Needham and Gabriel Arthur approached the Occaneechi, their eight Powhatan leaders turned back and cut a fine figurerestraintenter the country. The mission was aborted. Although they tried again with eight new leaders, all but one Appomattoc man returned to Occaneechi Island andNO more Car To I am going along with heroutside of. Needham himself approached the island, howeverit was stopped There with Of Occhenchees out of crossing AnyHe eventually convinced them to let him pass, but was later killed by Occaneechi's driver. Gabriel Arthur, who had crossed the causeway the year before while on leave accompanied by fifty-one Tomahitan traders, was ambushed by the Occaneechi on his return at night. TheOccenee started To work her plot And He has made like Scare,call everyone to arms. The Tomahitan flee, leaving their trade goods scattered. Hidden behind trees thatMond seem Bright,Arthur escapesAnd runs For Die atOccaneechi Island issea fastened with Nature,he said,And The tut her So cheeky, For this Is But like handful von People, except Was tramp repair To her, Die Be like Container For

Monkey hunting in the mountains

It is well known that there are no monkeys in North Carolina and never have been. In this case, we might assume that William Strachey possessed that rare sense of humor that finds hilarity in even the dullest of subjects, for we see him telling a rather odd tale of a Powhatan informant named Machumps, involving Primates and the Lost Settlers. In theSin And Ochanahoen,Mutchombs said:The People I have Houses built with Stein Walls, And A Story above anders, So teachable her with this English WO escaped The Butcher im the roar . . . The People race above domesticate Truthähne one her Houses, And i get monkeys In The

A useful summary is:Houses von Stein, domesticate Truthähne, And monkeys, allegedly im

Not surprisingly, historians have dismissed Strachey's testimony without examination. In so doing, they missed a very important clue. Nor is it the only word missing from Strachey's narration. Elsewhere we read that the Powhatan Gardens are planted with fruit and apoke. Apoke, from PowhatanOK,means that Strachey recorded the word in Algonquin and not in English. There's no reason to assume he hasn't done the same

ImPeccarecamicke,Sir Thomas Gates said:Of I shall find four von The English live, links with Herr Walter. . .This live under The SCHUTZ von like wireless calledAndit was Wert veryImPeccarecanick,added Strachey, they have English-style houses and they huntmonkeysin the mountains. This is how Cree would understand itApiskthe Pequot asmonkeys,and Wicocomoco as The word is Algonquian: It is a noun meaning "metal". Strachey told us that the Lost Colonists were used to gather ore in the city of Gepanocon.

This interpretation is supported by the names of the surrounding people themselves. 1898: Linguist William Tooker translates Powhatan names for nations within the enemy Monocan Confederacy. The capital of the Monocans, said Strachey, is Rassawek,To to the The Mowhemenchuges, The Massinnaacks, The Monohassanughs, And But nations payment

Rassauwek,out ofDiener"It's light, it's shining," he agreeshow it is,"House or house."Monokanone,out ofMona-ack'añough. alone,"two you" +Hear"Earth or land" +enough,"nation or people". Meaning: "People who dig up the earth." Free translation: "Miners". by SmithMoanacah talk about it [Mona-ack-añough-wassau-week],therefore of courseThe Heim von The People WO graben The Earth For something Bright. Massinnaack,"The Stone Place".Monahassanughs,"People digging the stone," synonymous with a nation naming their last known king, was Kolstáhagu, meaning "dwelling in."

We are approaching Mandoag

So, our research has come to the following conclusion: We believe that the majority of the lost colonists settled along the Chowan River, where they, along with their severely weakened Chowanoc hosts, were attacked and defeated by the Mandoag. We know that the Mandoag were powerful and much feared, that they controlled access to the Chaunis Temoatan copper-producing region, and that these mines were located in a mountainous riverside region twenty days' journey - or about 250 miles - from Mandoag country. We have located a location in the Carolina Slate Belt, present-day Randolph County, that naturally fits this description, both in grade and in the Deep River and Carraway Mountains that characterize it. We know that the vast road known as the "Great Trading Path" ran through this location some 90 miles south of Occaneechi Island, a major trading center and distribution terminal for goods from the South. We know that the Occaneechi closely guarded the entrance to the trade route and thus controlled the north (as well as east and west) access to the mines. We also know that the Occaneechi were small in number and that other nations allied to them performed similar policing duties. We know the Mandoag were mercenaries and hired out for copper. The Occaneechi probably appreciated such help. The question remains: Who are the Mandoag? And where are the lost colonists?

Which nation?

The North Carolina Piedmont is an extremely complex region, made all the more difficult because it is only imperfectly known. John White's map and Lane's description indicate that Mandoag bordered the border between Chowanoc and Secotan, a hill country traversed by the Roanoke River. Now we know their properties and the coordinates of their sphere of influence. Through a process of elimination, we should be able to identify them.

Recent historians favor the theory that the Mandoag are the Mandoag, but this assumption is based on flawed evidence. The Secotan Chowanoc Weapemeoc were Algonquin, so their enemies probably weren't. everyone agrees.Pleaseis a name the Algonquians often used for enemy nations. Before 1870, Iroquois was the only other known language group in North Carolina. hence the Mandoag were declared an Iroquois-speaking people. This classification persisted despite later evidence showing that most Piedmontese nations spoke Siouan, a very different language. However, since the Tuscarora were Iroquois - so the theory goes - they must be Mandoag. Three other pieces of evidence were also presented to support this claim: (1) Population: The Mandoag were strong and powerful. Numerically, the Tuscarora were superior. (2) Pakerakanick lay at the tar, as did the tuscarora. (3) Bland's mysterious Englishmen were in a town in the Tuscarora.

The Tuscarora theory can be rejected for the following reasons: (1) It does not necessarily mean that strength in numbers equals strength. Because of their strategic location and copper monopoly, the Occaneechi were considered the most powerful nation within five hundred miles. Furthermore, a small nation by no means excludes the possibility of confederations and alliances that could make them very powerful. (2) Pakerakanick was on the Tar River, but not necessarily in Tuscarora territory. Other nations lived west of the Tuscarora, and the Pakerakanick may have been among them. (3) The fact that two of the lost settlers were Tuscaroras means nothing more than that the Tuscaroras may have acquired them through trade, intermarriage, or adoption from another nation. Their presence does not prove that the Tuscarora are Mandoag. (4) The Tuscarora were Iroquois and may indeed have competed with the Secotan. However, this does not guarantee that it was Mandoag. It may simply have been the western nation that Barlow mentioned as being at war with the Sekotans. Or maybe not. In 1654, Francis Yeardley's traders visited Roanoke Island and were captured by herunusual commanderon a friendly visit to neighboring In 1711, in response to colonial abuses, the Secotan and Tuscarora formed a powerful alliance and together declared war on the North. In fact, the only direct evidence we have is that they were friends! (5) The Tuscarora lay west-southwest of the Secotan. We would expect Mandoag to be further north in every way.

The Nottoway are more. For years they were assumed to be Algonquin, although the Powhatan called them Nottoway, a derogatory term for enemies. That meant little, for the Powhatan were in competition with many Algonquian nations that were not part of their confederacy. Bland himself said that the Nottoway were allied with the Chowanoc, their nearest neighbors. The Nottoway carefully preserved a memorial over the corpse of a Chowanoc king killed by the Powhatan. In 1820, however, the Nottoway was classified as Iroquoian based on a word list by Edie Turner, one of the last survivors. Therefore: (1) Since the Mandoag were already considered Iroquois, it was hypothesized that the Nottoway were Mandoag. (2) The WordNo, howeveris Algonquin and means "serpent" or, like the Mandoag, they were clearly their own enemies. hence her name. (3) Nottoway was in a place roughly equivalent to Mandoag territory, albeit a little too far north.

The Nottoway theory can be questioned for the following reasons: (1) There is no evidence that the Mandoag were Iroquois, so identification with the Nottoway on that basis alone is untenable. (2) The Nottoways were not enemies of the Chowanoc but allied with them. They sided with Chowanoc against Powhatan in the dispute over the slain Chowanoc king. (3) There is no evidence that the Nottoway were regionally powerful or as powerful as the Mandoag. Bland reported that their leaders feared both the Wainoke people and the Hocomawananck people. They didn't seem too comfortable among the meherins either. (4) There is no evidence that the Nottoways were involved in copper, controlled access to the Chaunis-Temoatan mines, or were used as mercenaries.

By far the most puzzling candidates are (1) Their location was just south of Nottoway, so probably in Mandoag territory, although perhaps still a little too far north. (2) Her behavior towards Bland and her apparent alliance with Wainoke spies makes her suspicious, to say the least. (3) The Meherrin are considered Iroquois and thus likely hostile to both the Secotan and the Chowanoc.

The most serious problem with Meherrin's theory is related to language and identity. Who exactly were these people? 1650. Edward Bland is the first European to meet her. he called herMaharineck,knocks on an AlgonquinokSuffix for "place". 1701. Surveyor John Lawson lists it as 1788. Thomas Jefferson writes about itThe Meherrins And TuteloesLiving in Meherrin Could these two nations be related? 1836. Albert Gallatin believes so. He undertakes the classification of the Southeastern languages ​​and concludes that Meherrin and Tutelo are one and the same. So does Henry Schoolcraft in Yet the Tutelo (a monocan sub-tribe) speaking Siouan. Then how was it that Meherrin was later confused with Iroquois speakers?

The mistake was made by Gallatin himself. Since the Siowan nations were not believed to exist in North Carolina, and the Meherin and Tutelo were not Algonquin, they were assumed to be Iroquois. Later, vocabulary from Tutelo refugees in Canada proves this to be the case, but by this time the Meherrin language is extinct, no reclassification is made, and Gallatin's original statement about Iroquois remains unchanged. The Meherrin themselves (and perhaps the Nottoway too, possibly distorting their own classification) appear to have absorbed into their midst a large influx of Iroquoian-speaking Susquehannock from Maryland. Colonial records, which confused the two, went so far as to claim that Meherrinit was

The only word recorded in their language is the nameMeherrinitself. Linguists have been unable to produce an Iroquois translation, although it is said to mean "Muddy Water People". At Onondagao’dae’gemeans "muddy water". It's like that in Mohawk0'nawatsta: Keri. Meherrin,it is something different. It's Siouan and the original name must have been closerMereeee. Heremeans "banks". We see the name in Catawba asYes Here,"People on the Riverbank." In Wateree aslauncher Here,"The banks have been washed away." In Sugaree asVictory Here,"lazy (lazy) banks". In Congaree asStudent Horn Here,"Deep riverbanks." The wordMamaappears in Biloxi. Its meaning is "mud".MeherrinDiefrom (is) Map,"People of the muddy (river)

However, the Meherrin were not the Mandoag. It wasn't simply because there was another nation in that region that fitted the description much better. It's a nation we haven't thought about yet, but now is the time to think about it.

Solve the Mandoag puzzle

Meherrin knew Mandoag. Neither was the Iroquoian Tuscarora. nor the Nottoway, allies of the Chowanoc. They were a people related to the powerful Occaneechi and the Siouans of Piedmont. They were a people who sent out spies. They were a people that Meherrin helped distract Bland. They were the Wainokes.

The Secotan and Chowanoc call them Mandoag:The heimlich, TheTo their Siouan peers, they are the Eno. TheJanuary,the "People didn't like it", the "Mediocre", or perhaps in recognition of their general reputation.

In Ritanoc, leader Eyanoco (Eno) is holding seven lost colonists. In Anoeg (Eno), Strachey is informed of this by Wahunsononacock's servant WeinockHouses Is built HowIts location is ten days' march from Powhatan, or about a hundred miles through marshy country. existslike Land called Shortly(One), Wahunsonacock says to Smith,Wo this I have abundance von Messing, And Houses walled up ifMachumps also mentions much brass at Pakerakanick and Ocanahowan, and tenements the English had taught them to build. They hunt for ore -Ape- in the mountains.

The Eno are in constant contact with a people called the Shakori. Edward Blunt, fighting a retreat from their spies, boltsShocking altThe Tuscarora, Francis Yeardley reports in 1654, are at warlike unusual Nation called The Cocoa, like very a little bit People In Stature, not exceed Young people von thirteen Die fourteen Years, But extremely gallant And wild In Streit And, above Believe, fast In retirement AndSurprisingly, the Tuscarora are unable to defeat them. Shakori easyresist The Performance von The stark, reich, And numerousAllied with the ShakoriIs anders unusual Nationthat means thatHainokes[While]. You are even more fearless: you are EnoWO brave resist The Spanish" further Norden triedin the North

1701. Hires surveyor John LawsonEnoe I shall,whose town of Adshusheer lies on the Neuse and Tar rivers to take him to Roanoke Island via the Great Trade Route. Enoe Will is the leader of a mixed nationEnoeand his former home was at the mouth of Neuss, in the Gulf of Enoe,with which,Lawson said:I perceived Is it was A von The Korean withCoree and Secotanhe had it was like lang Year imThey arelike bloody And Barbar People,John Archdale flew to Coree. These are the Shakori or branches of the same people

The profile fits. The Eno are the Mandoag.This Is von mean stature AndThey arestingy AndThe Mandoag were mercenaries. Is alwayshard working To I win like Cent, And For this reason tenancy itself Outside To herThe Shakori join them. Thisagree with The Oenocks In Customs AndThey control access to the Chaunis Temoatan mines. They prevent the Tuscarora from trading with Jamestown. The Tuscarorait was concerned, For The Wainoakes he had he said her The The English I shall killHerName And host except her capabilities Is abominable To at The the rest of von TheThey are the Mandoags. Hervery names it was abominable ToThey would fight Lane's men. They shoot at herwooded itself We I know notThey areextremely gallant And wild In Streit And, above Believe, fast In retirement AndThey are the Mandoags. Gates' instructions to find the colonists who escaped from prisonPowhatan von RoanokeThey didn't point to Roanoke Island, but to the Roanoke River.

TheKeep your mouth shut, pen name Dogs, until now obsessedPiedmont, said Lederer. Butthis Is extinct, And The native american Now meeting Here Is discreet In The enough nations von Mahoc [Manahoek]. . . Nahyssan [SCHUTZ], Soap [Soap], Managog [Like], Mangoack [Like], He is coming [Occaneechi], And Monakin [Monacan], etc. A Language Is together To her Although this differ InThe Mandoag language is Siouan.

Thirty years after Lawson met Enoe Will, we hear from him again, now an old man. 1733. William Byrd, crossing the Nottoway River,Posted For like alt Indonesian called Shacco-Will, Zoe one7miles Away from, WO Got calculated the same 78 Years alt. The fellow pretender Is could Behave us To like Silber Mine, The Lie either on to Eno Flow, Die like Bach von Die, not away out of Wo The Tuscaruros once"Not far from where the Tuscarora once lived" lay Eno country. The times have The nations round one,bird said:ball-bearing In Geist The Debacle this native american needed until now To i do, i do under her ancestors In The insolence von her Perfomance, He has made im Long I take revenge Die Heim on toWilliam Byrd declines an old man's offer to take him to the old Mandoag area. Enoe Will is no longer needed. Instead ofKompfort von Herz, I gab him like Bottle von

The great diaspora

Our search is over. The Eno are the Mandoag. But as we search among them for the lost colonists, we make a disturbing discovery. Something is wrong, because there is no lost colony here. Europeans who have ventured inland report no such community.

However, there are numerous sightings of individuals: Arrohattoc (Powhatan Confederacy): a boy. Tuscarora: two Englishmen, a man and a woman. The Eno: City of Ritanoc, four men, two boys, one girl. In addition, Bland reportsBut English under The Inder,Unknown number. From the Zúñiga Map: Pakerakanick - four men were mentioned who were from Ocanahowan. Panawiock – LivingManyColonists lost, number unknown. Ocanahowan -secure Menreported, number unknown.

From the lower tar, a strange tale emerges from the territory of the Pamlico nation. 1669. Reverend Morgan Jones, a Welsh minister, is captured by the Tuscarora. He and his five companions are told they will die. Lamenting his fate aloud in Welsh,like Indonesian- a visitDoegWar Captain - nowhe came To Meinand spoke the same language. Jones runs away in surprise, the ancient man assures himBritish Language I must not Schimmel, And afterward there went To The Kaiser von The Tuscaroras, And agreed For Mein Geisel And The Men WO it was withJones follows them home and stays in their town for four months to preach in Welsh.This Is sauber,he said,on to Pontigo Flow– the Pamlico or lower

The story is captured by a Turkish spy living in Paris and translated into English.There Is like Areain North America, he claimsinhabited with like People to the this Financial support Tuscorards And Doegs. Her Language Is The The same thing if Is spoken with The Welsh. This Is Thought To descend out ofPart of White's company was

At first glance, the evidence is completely confusing. How could people from White's company point to so many places at once? Why aren't the Lost Colonists together? What did the Mandoags do to them?

In 1670 and again in 1701 they visited Eno and Shakori along the rivers Tar and Neuse, near modern-day Durham and Hillsborough. Their location then was near the Great Trade Trail, south of Occaneechi, and they were mainly occupied with the English trade caravans going up and down. Enoe Will was known as a leader. He readily offered his services to Lawson, as he later did to William Byrd. Lederer said they were willing to make a dime.

In 1587, however, the Eno's most lucrative trade earnings did not end on Jamestown's Great Trading Path, but ran east-west to the coast. Powhatan had a rich pearl fishery and according to the Tuscarora there was a salt corridor. We also know that there was a brisk trade in copper, and that the Mandoag controlled coastal access to it so well that informants from Secotan Hariot said they had never seen the mines from which the copper came.

In 1587, Eno—according to White's Mandoag map—was farther east, halfway between the coastal nations and the trading post of Occaneechi. The Chowanoc reported that their cities were only a day apart. This was the area where Bland traversed the ancient Shakori fields, an area so close to the Tuscarora that Lawson incorrectly listed the Eno as the Tuscarora. As we have seen, the Eno were middlemen who traded copper for salt and pearls from the coast. . . and some more.The Eno negotiate

This was not uncommon in the Southeast. The presence of slaves was mentioned again and taken as prisoners of war, what happened to them depended on the needs of the nation. They were used for cultivating fields, logging, hunting and working in mines. Others were adopted as full members of the nations they joined. Still others dispersed through trade.

Finally we understand the situation. Powell and Toadkill, sent to Mandoag by John Smith, did not have access to the Lost Colonists. There would be no repatriation - because they were slaves. They were used in Ritanoc, Strachey said.To rhythmOthers were arrested in Pakerakanick, where Gepanocon did not release them becauseA von this it was Wert very

If we are correct that the Eno/Mandoag conquered the lost colony, those not assigned to their cities would have been taken to the Occaneechi trade. From there they would have split off and spread inland. But did that happen? See the Zúñiga map for details.

Smith reported Lost Colony survivors in Panawioc, Pakerakanick, and Ocanahowan. Those in Pakerakanick were of Ocanahowan origin. We know that Ocanahowan was to the north, possibly along the Roanoke River, although the Zúñiga map placed it south of the Meherrin River above Occaneechi Island. Bland met a "Tuscarora" among the Meherrin who agreed to lead the lost settlers from the lower Tuscarora town to a place called Hocomawananck on a river. Is there a connection between this location and Ocanahowan, where so many settlers have been reported? Could one or both have been Occaneechi Island? The names on the Zúñiga map have never been translated. We must try now.

Ocanahowan. Recorded by Smith and later by Strachey. It was not deciphered in the Algonquin. That's because the word is Siouan. Its construction comes from Tuteloyu:xkañ,„Mann“, „Person“ +And,"many" +Hallo von,"come", "gather". Its meaning: "Many people gather together." We saw the exact word before in the Algonquian: Occaneechi, the placeWo PeopleThe lost colonists were there. In Ocanahowan - the Occaneechi trade.

Hocomawananck. Place name recorded by Bland. It's Algonquian and appears to be a combinationaccomac, Okay,"the other place", ή "beyond" +ma wig,"the place where two streams meet", soaccomawignack,“Beyond the place where the two streams met. In 1650, Bland traveled south from Jamestown with the intention of invading the Tuscarora villages. In Meherrin, he changed his plans and agreed to meet with the Lost ColonistsHocomawananckSomewhere out west, a seemingly reputable hangout, easily accessible, a sensible choice. What better place than Occaneechi Island? It is actually "beyond where two streams meet," in the middle of the Roanoke River at the confluence of the Staunton and Dan. Bland was ordered to open trading. Occaneechi Island was the gateway to the Great Trade Route.

Logically, as the lost colonists scattered from Occaneechi Island, they would reappear throughout Piedmont, among Occaneechi trading partners, and in the Eno cities. packa kank. Never translated but compared to AbenakiKopf,"scratched",If,"pines, forest" + PassamaquoddyHey"expanded, expanded" +ok,locative ending.Pekarakonoc,"Extended Scraping Space If true, it's a haunting reminder: In the deep woods, Powell and Toadkill discoveredcrosses & letters, The characters And secure credentials von Christen lately Section In The barks von

On Zúñiga's map, Pakerakanick appears at the Tar, which is essentially west of a fork in the river. Whether this was Tranters Creek or Fishing Creek in the northwest is unknown, but the nation on whose territory it stood was the same. This was an area near what is now Rocky Mount. This was Eno country. The head of the city was Gepanocon. His name is not translated, although a clue to its meaning can be found in the title of a Siouan chief, recorded by the Tutelo asA need Young

Panawioc. Smith said many lost colonists are here. The word is Algonquin. It means:Position von Foreigner,an appropriate name for a site wherementioned us Men ToZúñiga is located on the map in Cashie Creek, Bertie County. Again, this was probably Eno territory, or perhaps associated with the tribal city of Moratuc. In Panawioc, Strachey reported:Is he said To Is save on computer von SaltTwo important salt deposits have been discovered on the Carolina coast. One is far south near present-day Wilmington. The other is at the confluence of the Roanoke and Chowan rivers in the Cashie Creek area.

If the Zúñiga map was our only source for the Lost Colony sightings, we may still be in doubt. Is not. Smith's and Strachey's reports also confirm the spread, as does a curious find in the Blue Ridge Mountains. 1671. Thomas Batch and Robert Fallam are sent on an expedition to Tutelo territory under government auspices. You will be the first Englishmen to reach the Blue Ridge Mountains. As they walk down a path at the bottom of the first row, they notice several letters burned into the trunk of the tree.marked In TheIf you look closely you can see the initialsMA.Five days later, still marching west, they discover two more marked trees: the first bears an inscription againMA.(DieNJ.,Out ofJAndIwere written immediately). the second is initialedMA. And enough ButIs it a coincidence? Lost colonists included Morris Allen and Nicholas Johnson.

Die China-Box

The trade route was a field of rubble. Wahunsonacock himself showed the English a musket barrel, brass mortar, and bits of iron from the scatter that marked the end of White's A road, which led directly from Powhatan to the trade route on Occaneechi Island. In fact, the Powhatans were so rich in copper from this trade that Jamestown initially believed the mines must be right out their back door.

1621. Edward Waterhouse documents the expedition of Marmaduke Parkinson, who traveled north from Jamestown to the Potomac River. Although the nations here are autonomous, they are within Powhatan's sphere of influence. In theA von The The Kings Houses Wo this it was,Waterhouse-Spionelike ChinaBehe requested Wo Is he had Die,the kingHe has made answer, The Die it was Posted him out of like König The resided In The West, above The unusual Hill, some ten take Travel Away, Is have The Crate out of like People, if Is he said, The he came there In Ships, The carry Clothing, dishonest swords And, something How us Men, resided In Houses, And it was calledIt's tempting to see Lederer in that wordAkenachi– the Occaneechi and their trademarks, over the hills.

The China box is perhaps our final image of The Lost Colonists, more poignant than words. A delicate enamel souvenir, a personal luxury brought from England by one of the eleven women who went to sea with White to find a new home.

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